The term finishing refers to all those processes aimed at ennobling a textile product, going to improve its appearance, the softness and the properties of the product, also according to the different fields of use. These procedures are applied to pieces already woven and dyed and can be divided into two types: through mechanical action or with the use of chemicals.
Each article has a different and specific finish depending on the final destination of the product: some operations are used to alter the structure of the fabric, improving the quality, others change its appearance, making it more pleasant.
One of the processes that the Manifattura Tessile DiNole performs regularly is the vaporization of the fabrics: this process consists in sending steam through a perforated tube directly on the piece. The purpose is to increase the softness and eliminate the excessive shine of the product and give dimensional stability.
Another process used is calendering, which consists in passing the fabric through cylinders, some rigid and heated, other elastic, pressed against each other at great pressure. All this gives the product brilliance and improvement of the softness.
The carding (or brushing) is instead an ancient process whose main purpose is to lift and make parallel the hair that composes the surface of the velvet. This process owes its name to the thistle plant that was formerly used for this work. In 1760 the first cylindrical mechanical carding machine was built, making it completely automated.
One of the most important process regarding the finishing of velvets is the topping. It consists in cutting the pile of velvet lifted by the carding, parallelizing it to a certain height and allowing to obtain a homogeneous and shiny surface on the whole piece of velvet. This operation is carried out by a machine called “Shearing Machine” which cuts the hair at a fixed height through helical and rotating blades.